What Is The Purpose Of Antifreeze

Most people assume they know what antifreeze does in a car’s engine. After all, it is pretty obvious if you just look at the name. It is a chemical agent that keeps the parts of the car engine from freezing. Antifreeze does more than just that for your engine. How does it do everything all at the same time? The answer is in its make-up.

The Chemical Make-up

Antifreeze does keep an engine from locking up because of its chemical make-up. The ingredients in antifreeze combine to make a reaction where the fluids in a car cannot freeze. The reaction of the chemicals will always stay warm enough for all of the parts to keep functioning, no matter how cold it gets. The exception to this rule is oil. An oil pan might need a heat engine block installed if you live in areas that are consistently below zero for extended periods. Antifreeze does not mix with the oil to keep it warm while the car sits out in the garage at night.

Just as the antifreeze keeps the engine from freezing, it also works in reverse. The chemical reaction with the fluids also keeps the engine cool during the summer months so that it does not overheat. How is this possible? Well, it’s possible because of the science behind the ingredients used to make up antifreeze. The properties in the antifreeze also work to cool the engine so the parts do not get too hot and they can still run together without friction causing too much heat.

An engine needs to be kept at a certain temperature to keep it running smoothly and efficiently. Keeping the antifreeze levels up all year will allow the engine to run at temperatures where it can do just that. Antifreeze levels can be checked at a service center when the oil is changed. The antifreeze can also be inspected during a maintenance check to see if it is the correct color or if it needs flushing. Sometimes, dirt can get in the fluids and they need to be changed, especially after there are several thousands of miles put on an engine, and if your car travels over roads with dirt.

Antifreeze Can Be Dangerous

Even though the compound is called antifreeze, it anti-boils, too. Since the compound is chemical in nature, it is dangerous to the touch. Keep antifreeze away from children and pets. There is an ingredient in antifreeze that is sweet and will attract pets. However, this ingredient is fatal and could kill a cat or a dog who was caught licking it off the garage floor or from the container in the garage.

If there is antifreeze in containers in your garage, then keep them on a shelf where they cannot be easily reached. If there is a puddle on the floor in the garage, clean it up, and then head to the repair shop to see where the problem is in your engine. Going without antifreeze is hazardous to your car, even in the summer. The name might be deceiving, since the car engine needs antifreeze during both hot and cold days in order to run properly.

Top Automotive Innovations Of 2012

Every new model year brings new bells and whistles from the auto industry. Here are the biggest changesand the unofficial rating for how it will affect you personally, either lame, game, or undecided.

Lame. Okay, so air bags were a good idea when they came out. They added safety with virtually no effort on the part of the driver. Even passenger side air bagsstill a good idea. But knee air bags? Seriously? Carmakers are even talking about making air bags to prevent back seat passengers from hitting the front seats. What will they think of next, giant padded walls inside the car to keep you from hurting yourself?

Game. Greater smartphone integration into all aspects of the car, from streaming your mp3s stored inside the phone straight into the car stereo, to projecting the navigation system in your phone onto the car’s DVD player. Now that’s smart: taking an already existing technology and adapting the car to use it without any additional effort on the part of the owner.

Lame. Apparently, the executive boardroom tables at Ford suck all the common-sense right out of the room. That’s because in spite of well-earned criticism for the MyFordTouch touch screen layout, they’ve decided to add it to more models for 2012. Touch screens work great for some things: smart phones, iPadsbut for turning up the heat in your car, it’s easiest just to have a knob. Or a switch.

Undecided. The auto-stop feature, which turns off your engine automatically at things like stop lights, is being added to more models than ever. In theory, it is designed to be imperceptibleto turn back on as soon as you go again. In practice, if it means having to wait for your car to turn on again, it could turn lame real fastor it could mean saving a few bucks on fuel with no perceived difference if it works as advertised.

Game. Secretariat would be proud. The fastest horse ever was always underestimated because of his smaller sizeand today’s engines are smaller and more powerful than ever. GM’s Buick Regal has a 4 banger that puts out 270 horsesjust about the same horsepower as a new 289 V8 produced in a 1965 Ford Mustang when they came out.

Which Motorcycle Brand Is The Best

When it comes to the leading motorcycle brands on the market, the list appears endless. However, when you take a closer look, the motorcycle brands that stand heads and shoulders above the competition are motorcycle brands like Harley Davidson, Yamaha, Honda and Ducati. These four motorcycle brands are just a few in a fast growing field of motorcycle machinery and technologically advanced motorcycles around. Harley Davidson continues to build performance-wise motorbikes with 117 horsepower engine.

Harley Davidson’s VRSCAW V-ROD reaches an impressive 0-100 KM/H in approximately 3.5 seconds. While the Ducati 900 is considered a classic raw power packed with Italian innovation and design. The technology behind the making of this classic machine has blow the competition away with a 2-cylinder and 78 horsepower engine. Ducati is the one to go for when you want the ultimate motorbike experience.

For a quality and reliable motorcycle, the BMW motorcycle is second to none in its category. BMW motorbike insurance is always necessary when handling a bike of this kind. Especially, when you are taking on the power of the BMW motorbike machinery. Fast and powerful definitely describes this motorcycle. For a chic look, tried and tested reliability, the BMW motorbike will not let you down. As one of Asia’s leading manufacturers of motorbikes, the Yamaha motorbike is ingenuity and motorcycle advancement combined. Yamaha motorbike insurance is definitely required for a machine packed with so much more than your standard motorcycle.

Get an online insurance quote for your motorcycle insurance to ensure that you get the best quote available. Honda motorcycle insurance scheme provide you with everything you need. Some motorcycle insurance schemes even offer helmet and leather cover. Once you have confirmed your Honda motorbike insurance for your Honda motorbike you are ready to take to the open roads with the wind in your hair. The power of the Honda technology has span decades. The track record for this esteemed motorcycle manufacturer has legions of customer loyalty behind it. It is definitely a name in the world of motorbikes that you can trust and enjoy to the maximum.

Automotive Service Warning Lights That Your Vehicle Needs Automotive Repair!

Paying close attention to your vehicle’s warning lights is one of the surest ways to know whether your vehicle needs a minor automotive service, or a more extensive automotive repair. The dashboard lights are color-coordinated according to the severity of the warning (i.e., yellow is caution, red is serious). Each time you start the car, all of the lights and indicators appear as the car’s computer checks each system. When the lights go out, the computer has verified that each of the vehicle’s systems is functioning properly.

If an indicator light remains on several minutes after the car has been started, or if it comes on while driving the car, you should be concerned about it. You will want to treat all dash warning lights like traffic signals.
The two basic kinds of warning lights; Yellow and Red, are further described below:
Yellow Warning Lights –

On most cars, a yellow “Service Engine Soon” light means “proceed with caution.” Your car’s computer system has indicated a potential problem and is alerting the driver.

The computer system is capable of correcting some minor abnormalities, but if the light continues to come on after multiple car starts, it is telling you that you need to consult a technical manual and/or schedule an automotive service. If the light comes on while you are driving but doesn’t come back on again, the computer system probably corrected the problem without any further intervention.
Common problems that may cause the “Service Engine Soon” light to come on are:

* computer-related problems, such as faulty sensors
* anti-lock brake systems
* safety restraint systems, such as air bags
* emissions components

Red Warning Lights –

A Red Warning light indicates an immediate danger to your car and you should immediately pull over and turn off the car. Whatever caused the red light to come on can be a safety issue (i.e., brakes), so proceed with caution as you maneuver to stop the vehicle.

Unfortunately, when the red light comes on, the problem is already occurringthis is NOT a pre-warning. It can be a matter of seconds before permanent engine damage occurs. Call for road-side assistance for automotive repair.
Problems that normally cause red warning lights are:

* low oil pressure
* engine over-heating
* brake failure
* transmission over-heating
* low battery voltage.

Like smart phones, vehicles these days are ‘smart’ and are continuously monitoring the performance of your vehicle.

For professional automotive service, contact our ASE-certified technicians at A&C Automotive & Machine by calling 651-674-4733, or go online at http://aandcautomotive.com for more information. Since 1985, our auto center has served vehicle owners in North Branch, MN, and in the surrounding areas of Harris and Stacy, MN.

Vacuum sewer – automotive lockout tools – car door unlock

Basic elements Collection chambers and vacuum valve units Vacuum sewer lines Central vacuum station Vacuum technology is based on differential air pressure. Rotary vane vacuum pumps generate an operation pressure of -0.4 to -0.6 bar at the vacuum station, which is also the only element of the vacuum sewerage system that must be supplied with electricity. Interface valves that are installed inside the collection chambers work pneumatically. Any sewage flows by means of gravity into each house collection sump. After a certain fill level inside this sump is reached, the interface valve will open. The impulse to open the valve is usually transferred by a pneumatically (pneumatic pressure created by fill level) controlled controller unit. No electricity is needed to open or close the valve.

The according energy is provided by the vacuum itself. While the valve is open, the resulting differential pressure between atmosphere and vacuum becomes the driving force and transports the wastewater towards the vacuum station. Besides these collection chambers, no other manholes, neither for changes in direction, nor for inspection or connection of branch lines, are necessary. High flow rates keep the system free of any blockages or sedimentation. Vacuum sewer systems are considered to be free of ex- and infiltration which allows the usage even in water protection areas. For this reason, vacuum sewer lines may even be laid in the same trench as potable water lines (depending on local guidelines). The system supplier should certify his product to be used in that way. To achieve the condition of an infiltration-free system and therefore allowing to reduce the waste water amounts that need to be treated, water tight (PE material or similar) collection chambers should be used. Valve and collection sump (waste water) preferably should be physically separated (different chambers) in order to protect service personal against direct contact with waste water and to ensure longer life cycles (waste water is considered to be corrosive).

In order to ensure reliable transport, the vacuum sewer line is laid in a saw-tooth (length-) profile, which will be referred to more precisely afterwards. The whole vacuum sewers are filled with air at a pressure of -0.4 to -0.6 bar. The most important aspect for a reliable operation is the air-to-liquid ratio. When a system is well designed, the sewers contain only very small amounts of sewage. The air-to-liquid ratio is usually maintained by “intelligent” controller units or valves that adjust their opening times according to the pressure in the system. Considering that the vacuum idea relies on external energy for the transport of fluids, sewers can be laid in flat terrain and up to certain limits may also be counter-sloped. The saw-tooth profile keeps sewer lines shallow, lifts minimise trench depth (approx. 1.0 1.2 m). In this depth, expensive trenching, as it is the case for gravity sewers with the necessity to install continuously falling slopes of at least 0.5 – 1.0%, is avoided. Lifting stations are not required. Once arrived in the vacuum collection tank at the vacuum station, the wastewater is pumped to the discharge point, which could be a gravity sewer or the treatment station directly. As the dwell time of the watewater inside the system is very short and the wastewater is continuously mixed with air, the sewage is kept fresh and any fouling inside the system is avoided (less H2S). Advantages closed, pneumatically controlled system with a central vacuum station. Electrical energy is only needed at this central station no sedimentation due to self-cleansing high velocities spooling and maintenance of the sewer lines is not necessary manholes are not required Usually only a single vacuum pump station is required rather than multiple stations found in gravity and low pressure networks

This frees up land , reduces energy costs and reduces operational costs. Investment costs can be reduced up to 50% due to simple trenching at shallow depths, close to surface flexibility of piping, obstacles (as open channels) can be over- or underpassed reduced installation time small diameter sewer pipes of HDPE, PVC materials; savings of material costs aeration of sewage, less development of H2S, with its dangers for workers, inhabitants, as well as corrosion of the pipes may be avoided; sewage is kept fresh no odours along the closed vacuum sewers no infiltration, less hydraulic load at treatment station and discharge sewers absolutely no leakages (vacuum avoids exfiltration) sewers may be laid in the same trench with other mains, also with potable water or storm-water, as well as in water protection areas Lower cost to maintain in the long term due to shallow trenching and easy identification of problems In combination of vacuum toilets it creates concentrated waste streams, which makes it feasible to use different waste water treatment techniques, like anaerobic treatment Limitations vacuum systems are not capable of transporting sewage over very long distances, but can pump long distances from the vacuum station to the next STP or main gravity sewer. vacuum sewerage systems are only capable for the collection of wastewater within a separated system (not for the collection of storm-water) the lines can only reach up to 3-4 km laid in flat area (restrictions of the system due to headlosses (3-4.5 m) (friction and static)) systems should be designed with help of an experienced manufacturer (concepts are usually free of charge) external energy is required at a central point for collecting sewage odours close to the vacuum station can occur, a biofilter may be necessary Integrity of the pipe joints is paramount Application Fields Vacuum sewer systems becomes more and more the preferred system in the case of particular circumstances: Especially difficult situations as ribbon, peripheral settlements on flat terrain with high specific conduit lengths of longer than 4 metres per inhabitant are predestined for the application of vacuum sewerage systems. In the case of sparse population density the influence of the costs for the collection chambers and vacuum stations are less important in comparison to the costs of long and deep sewers on gravity. Missing incline of the ground, unfavourable soil (rocky or swampy grounds) and high groundwater table (with the necessity of dewatering trenches) lead to enormous investment costs in regards to gravity sewerage systems. On the contrary vacuum sewers that are small in diameter can be laid close to the surface in small trenches. Vacuum sewers can pass through water protection areas and areas with sensitive high ground water tables, because there is no danger of spoiling groundwater resources (vacuum sewers have a high leak tightness due to their material; moreover the vacuum itself does not allow exfiltration).

Vacuum systems has also been applied to collect toxic wastewater. Vacuum systems are seen as a priority in many environmentally sensitive areas such as the Couran Cove Eco Resort close to the Barrier Reef in Australia. In seasonal settlements (recreation areas, camping sites etc.) with conventional gravity sewer systems, sedimentation problems can easily occur as automatic spooling from the daily waste water does not take place. High flow velocities within vacuum sewers prevent such sedimentation problems. The Formula 1 race tracks in Shanghai and Abu Dhabi are using a vacuum sewer system for that reason. Even in old narrow and historical villages, the use of vacuum sewer systems becomes more and more important due to a fast (traffic, tourism), cost-effective and flexible installation. Good examples and references can be found in France, such as the village of Flavigny, in Oman at the township of Khasab and Al Seeb. Lack of water in many countries and drastic water savings measures have led to difficulties with aging gravity networks with solids blocking in the pipes. Neither the lack of water nor solids affect resp. occur in vacuum sewer systems. That’s why this technology becomes interesting for such kind of applications. As PE or PVC pipes are used, no solids from ageing pipes will enter the system. All other solid are kept out at the collection chambers. vacuum sewer systems don’t have any manholes to dump big solids into the system. Project Examples The county of Sarasota, Florida and the city of Carnation, Washington are developing a county wide collection system and is incorporating vacuum sewers. In Germany, several hundred well-working systems are operating since the 1970. Especially in the Middle East (United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman), vacuum sewer systems become more and more important due to easy and fast installation along with water saving effects and easiness of maintenance. The world’s most famous vacuum sewer project is currently the Palm Island Jumeirah, located at the coast of Dubai City, United Arab Emirates. Approx. 23.000 people will be connected to this vacuum sewer system with only 1 central vacuum station.

The vacuum station is considered to be the biggest vacuum station in the world. The biggest installation in Europe (several vacuum stations) can be found in Gerasdorf (near Vienna), Austria, where many benefits of a vacuum sewer system helped to overcome difficult conditions in this mountainous area. Good examples can be found on the Maldives, the post-tsunami WATSAN project UNICEF – UN, where on several islands vacuum sewer systems have been the best option. Several other project, mainly for resorts, have already been realized on the Maldives. Vacuum sewer systems are not only used in the Europe or Middle East but even in low developed third world countries. Several vacuum sewer systems have been already built or are currently under construction in Africa (South Africa, Botswana, Namibia) for townships and rural areas where the benefit of fast construction time, cost saving trenching and high flexibility have come to full effect. Australia has been one of the largest users of vacuum sewer systems due to the low installation and operational costs. The largest system to-date has been at the Tea Gardens development in New South Wales, which will ultimately handle over 4.500 houses. The Water Corporation in Western Australia is considered the largest single owner of vacuum systems in the world with over 30 schemes now under their operational control. The United Kingdom is well served by Vacuum Sewerage Systems, the region most extensively served are the low lying fenlands of the East of England. High water tables (in some cases less than 1metre below the surface) and poor ground conditions have meant that the local Water Company Anglian Water has embraced the use of Vacuum Sewerage, taking advantage of the system’s requirement for small bore sewer pipes laid in shallow trenches, dramatically reducing the requirement for pumping stations as would be required by conventional gravity sewer systems. The largest Vacuum Sewerage scheme in this region serves the villages of Outwell and Upwell, 4 vacuum collection stations serve some 1500 homes in this agglomeration. On initial costings for a conventional gravity sewer to serve the area, previously served by domestic septic settlement tanks the site would have required the installation of 32 pumping stations. Using a vacuum sewer system, this number of pumping stations was reduced to 4 vacuum stations. Other companies in the UK such as Southern water operate vacuum sewer systems, too. Lately, vacuum sewer systems become popular for industrial and commercial projects as well, where only little domestic waste water occurs and where the flexibility of a vacuum sewer system allows easy coordination with usually plenty of other utilities in the ground.

Good examples can be found again in the Middle East, such as some small industrial areas in the Emirate of Ras al Khaimah or the newly built Qatalum Aluminium Plant in Qatar, the world’s largest primary aluminium plant. The well known eco-city of Masdar, U.A.E., uses a vacuum sewer system as well to separate grey from black water. Installation and construction The following section covers some basic information regarding the installation of vacuum sewer system. This section is not complete and should only give a basic overview. Based on long term experience, only HDPE pipes should be used for vacuum sewer system pipe works. The recommended pipe classification is SDR11. Preferences should be given to electro fusion joints rather than butt welding. In general, butt welding shall only be allowed for pipe diameters bigger or equal than 150mm as the internal beads from butt welding methods will reduce the diameter especially for 90mm pipes significantly which can cause blockages inside the pipes. It is most important not to use any 90 connection within the pipe work. This refers to any main or branch lines connections as well as to horizontal direction changes. Only wye-fittings and 45 bends may be used. Using 90 connection will lead to blockages within the system and may create water hammers with temporarily pressure drops affecting the equipment. It is furthermore very important to follow the pipe profiles which should be given by the system supplier. A minimum requirement is a constant slope of 0.2% within the so called saw tooth profile. Upwards slopes and deviations from the given pipe profiles will lead to water sags causing temporarily blockages and pressure drops resp. additional head losses. In worst case, this can lead to a failure of the system. Especially the connection line from the collection pit to the next branch or main line needs to maintain a certain slope as otherwise water sags may cut off the valves from the vacuum inside the pipe system causing malfunction of the valves. Special attention has to be given to the civil works related to the pipe work installation. Over-compaction or damages to the pipes by excavators may result in significant problems during operation. Even if the pipe withstands the pressure tests during construction and after backfilling, squeezed pipes or pipe full of concrete or other construction debris will lead to blockages and water sags during operation.

Although international guidelines give clear recommendations for gate valves (every 400-500m within main lines and for branch lines longer than 200-250m), all important side branches should be equipped with a gate valves. This will allow much faster pressure tests and leak detection during construction and will allow emergency measures if problems occur. Ruling technical guidelines and norms EN 1091 DWA-A 116-1 (also known as ATV-DVWK-A 116, Part 1) WEF (Water Environment Federation) Alternative Sewer Systems (Second Edition -2008) WSA 07 (Australian Code) AS 4310 – 2004 (Australian Vacuum Interface Valve Standard) External links Airvac, International (U.S.A.) Roevac, International (Germany) Iseki, UK Quavac, Netherlands Flovac, International Vacuum sewerage systems on Wikipedia References ^ PCS: Vacuum Sewer Construction ^ http://www.ci.carnation.wa.us/sewer/factsheet-vacsystem.pdf Categories: Sewerage infrastructure